Friday, Mar. 31st, 2023

Sweet Pea T-Shirt & Poster Contests Open NOW

Calling all artists! The Sweet Pea T-Shirt and Poster Contests are now open! The deadlines for both are Thursday, May 4, 2023 - so you still have plenty of time to create! Winners of the T-Shirt contest will receive $1000 for adult category and $250 for children's category. The winner of the poster contest also receives $1000!

Sweet Pea's mission is to promote and cultivate the arts and the Festival not only brings Art to Bozeman but allows us to award grants and sponsorship to other arts organizations in town. Over the years we have given over $385,000 to support arts in our community. Sweet Pea - "Where Art & Community Meet."

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Seniors in Southwest Montana are Facing Extreme Cost of Living Pressure

HRDC sees an increase in the number of customers ages 55 and older in need of supportive services.

A number of economic pressures are hitting the wallets of seniors living in and around Gallatin County. Rising rents, a significant deficit in affordable housing, inflation, high medical costs, and the recent cessation of the Montana Emergency Rental Program (MERA) are causing many people who are nearing retirement or who have already retired to seek help from HRDC.

“Can you imagine what you would do if your rent were to suddenly go up $500 per month — or more — while your primary source of income is a monthly Social Security check that is less than $1,500? Not only that, but when you start to look around for an alternative living situation, there is absolutely nothing available that you can afford. Panic quickly sets in, and despite having lived a self-sufficient life up until now, you find yourself on the brink of experiencing homelessness in your 60s, 70s, and 80s?” asked Margaret Mason, Associate Director and Senior Programs Manager at HRDC.

Mason continued, “Most of our senior customers live on fixed incomes that no longer stack up to our area’s high cost of living. During 2022, we provided a full range of supportive services to 2,246 individuals, an all-time high.”

One of the most staggering statistics reported by HRDC is the number of seniors who accessed the agency’s emergency shelters last year. The Bozeman and Livingston Warming Centers provided support to 175 seniors who were experiencing homelessness in 2022, a significant increase over past years.

Kristin Hamburg, HRDC’s Development Director, expressed concern about the untenable situation seniors have been confronted with when it comes to housing. “Many area seniors have lived in and around Gallatin Valley for decades. They’ve worked hard to raise families, build a strong community, and make sacrifices for others. Now in their golden years, they find themselves at an unexpected crossroads. How do they remain living independently in their homes when their income hasn’t kept pace with the relatively recent affluence that surrounds them? Bozeman, Montana — a city that was recently dubbed “One of the World’s Greatest Places” by Time Magazine — doesn’t exactly feel like one of the world’s greatest places to the many seniors who are truly struggling to make ends meet.”

Striving to combat this challenging set of circumstance is HRDC’s Senior Programs team. They guide customers in how to best stretch household incomes to maintain independent living. On average it costs approximately $2,900 a month for a senior to live independently with support from HRDC’s Senior Programs as compared to an average cost of $6,300 per month for someone to live in a nursing home.

HRDC’s commitment to helping seniors live independently as long as safely possible includes providing housing navigation services, financial counseling, monthly grocery boxes, public transportation options, Medicare counselling, in-home help, behavioral health support, social activities, and connections to a myriad of other community resources.

Hamburg has teamed up with Mason to help shine a light on the plight of seniors who are living in or near poverty in Bozeman and beyond. A 45-day focus on the agency’s senior programs kicked off in the middle of March and includes a variety of community education and outreach efforts. A sold-out bingo fundraising event is taking place at The Armory Hotel tonight, March 30th which will be followed by a number of other fundraising activities.

“A $22 donation to HRDC’s Senior Programs will help our agency continue to provide our full range of services to one senior in need through the remainder of our fiscal year. While we are focused on raising a total of $50,000 in the coming months to meet our budgeting needs, we want to ensure that everyone in our community understands the impact they can make on someone’s life when they donate the equivalent of a couple of lunches out,” said Hamburg.

HRDC is a private, not-for-profit Community Action Organization focused on building a better community through its nearly 50 initiatives aimed at combatting poverty in southwestern Montana. Donors, volunteers, and community members can learn more at

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Thursday, Mar. 30th, 2023

Where can students get a Bachelor of Science in Architecture

Getting an education is very important, especially if a student is studying architecture. You must study all the standards and norms to design houses and various architectural objects. Education is a stepping stone to getting a name among famous architects and the opportunity to create future buildings. In our post, we have happily compiled a list of places where students can get a Bachelor of Science in Architecture.

A list that will help you get a Bachelor of Science in Architecture?

Even though you want to get an education in architecture, you can later use it in other directions. If you know where it is better to apply, you will be able to expand your knowledge and skills. Of course, after you become a full-fledged architecture student, you will have a lot of tasks and little free time. The authors who have decided to order coursework will be able to make your studies easier. You will get the help you expect, and at the same time, you can easily manage to complete all your projects. Read on for a list of places to get a Bachelor of Science in Architecture so you can start writing your application as soon as possible.

Washington University in Saint Louis

This university is known for its focus on research and was considered medium in size. It has highly qualified teachers and capable students. The architecture program they offer has a long history of over 100 years. By enrolling there, you will be able to continue working as a graduate in architecture and combine this with a flexible program. Also, a consultant is provided for students who will help them cope with subjects from an individual program.


University of Notre Dame

Notre Dame is a renowned Catholic institution offering a Bachelor of Architecture degree. Their program is a five-year program, and each academic year is designed to allow you to develop your skills and rapidly expand your knowledge. The University of Notre Dame has three areas you can choose from furniture design, restoration, and architectural practice. The university also offers different types of research directions. Consider this university if you are interested in architecture history, urbanism, and housing studies.


University of Minnesota

This university is considered public and large enough as it has campuses in different places. One is near the Mississippi River, and the other is in St. Paul. The University of Minnesota degree is designed for all students interested in theory and practice. Their program emphasizes design thinking and teaches students how to design and draw. Also, if you become a student of their program, you will be able to visit the actual practice in countries such as China, Italy, and others.


Illinois Technological University

Back in the 19th century, the private University of Illinois was created in Chicago. This educational institution offers a bachelor's degree to students whose studies will last for five years. Throughout the training, students will attend classes in studio design and, at the same time, standard theory and practice. In the last year of study, students participate in projects with different profiles. The project team is led by approximately 12 students who create and present the work. The university also holds many extracurricular activities that positively affect students.


Tulane University

This university is located in New Orleans and offers students a bachelor's degree in architecture. The student's training will take five years and, throughout the learning process, expands knowledge and innovation for students. During the classes, students study history, climate, urbanism, efficiency, and the globalization of the economy. At the end of the year of study, a dissertation is written to the student based on the research and class work. Also, if you choose this program, you can apply for participation in the Rome program abroad. You can visit one of the wealthiest cities in the world in terms of architecture for a semester.


The University of California at Los Angeles

This educational institution is huge in the world of research and education. They have over 300 undergraduate programs on their list. An architecture degree is also on the list for students. Their program is designed for two years and often starts in the lower grades. The curriculum has all the core courses like design, research, and technology. You will be able to visit a huge art library and modern classes for practice. If you want to be part of a large community of students, you should apply to this university.


Georgia Institute of Technology

This university is located near the center of Atlanta and is considered a large institution. The program combines studio classes and writing term papers. Students also attend specific workshops that allow them to be more creative in their projects. It is also essential that many students of their course take their chosen courses abroad. Programs are taking place in Italy, Ghana, Greece, etc. If you enter this university, you can not only study courses but also solve problems that exist in architecture.


Rhode Island School of Design

The Rhode Island School of Design is recognized as one of the highest-quality schools in design and art. It is located in Providence and offers students a five-year program of study. You will also earn a degree in architecture and be prepared for a specialist license. This school must have a progressive program with courses that complement each other. In the last year of study, students create individual projects that provide preparation for a career.


Montana State University

The MSU’s School of Architecture lets students gain excellent architectural experience by studying through practice. They work with real clients realizing various projects and learning to solve problems via the Community Design Center based at MSU. This center serves people of the Montana community, helping them reach non-profit and government organizations and agencies providing collaborative partnerships. In addition to fundamental knowledge in architecture, students can join volunteer programs contributing to the social sphere.


Getting a bachelor's degree is very important to become a pro and getting high pay for your work as an architect. Learning this craft is only possible with professors and relevant courses. After reading our list, you have received more information about educational institutions, and you can find something interesting for yourself. Do not worry about introductory papers because you just need to request: ‘Can you write my essay for me?’ to get qualified help.

The assistance of professional authors will always be available to you.

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Wednesday, Mar. 29th, 2023

Optimist Club Presents the 58th Annual Garagarama

Bozeman, MT  - It’s quickly shifting to that time of year when the folks of Southwest Montana begin tending to spring cleaning and making plans for sunny season adventures. There’s no better place to find hidden treasures and new-to-you wares than the annual Garagarama event.

The Optimist Club of Bozeman presents the 58th annual event at the Gallatin County Fairgrounds on Saturday, April 1st from 8am–3pm. This yearly sale features an array of garage sale booths spread out in three separate buildings. Admission is $2.

Breakfast will be available from 7:30am to 11am, followed by lunch from 11am to 2pm. Meals are $10 each.

This event will features virtual and live auction. Auction items range from $10.00 to $300.00. Online bidding begins on 3/27 at 7:00 am and ends on 4/1 at 2:00 pm.

Garagarama is the Optimist Club’s largest annual fundraiser. Founded on August 13, 1947, the Optimist Club of Bozeman provides opportunities, activities, camps, and materials for youth to develop their skills and improve their self-worth and their confidence! The Optimist Club of Bozeman is a 501(c)3 nonprofit and “friend of youth,” devoting its time and energy to raising funds for local youth groups, organizing youth-oriented community events, and giving out non-traditional student scholarships and sports gear scholarships.

To learn more about the impact of Optimist Club on children and families in our community, visit

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3.28.23 Green Mountain Snowmobile Rescue

On March 28, 2023, at 4:00pm, Gallatin County dispatch received a call for a snowmobiler who was injured on Green Mountain near Jackson Creek Road.

Gallatin County Sheriff Search and Rescue volunteers from the Valley Section and Heli Team, along with American Medical Response responded to the area of Jackson Creek Road and Stublar Road. GCSSAR deployed a hasty team of four snowmobilers to establish contact with the patient. Ground teams packaged the patient and coordinated with the Heli Team to extricate the patient off Green Mountain.  Ultimately, AMR transported the patient to Bozeman Health Deaconess Regional Medical Center for further evaluation.

Sheriff Dan Springer would like to remind recreationalists to be prepared for rapidly changing conditions. Sheriff Springer commends the patient for having multiple means of communication and being prepared for the weather.

Photos courtesy of Gallatin County Sheriff’s Office.

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3.28.23 Buck Ridge Snowmobile Rescue

On March 28, 2023, at 12:09 pm, Gallatin County Dispatch received a call for a snowmobiler that sustained a leg injury from a tree strike on Buck Ridge Trail near mile marker 3.5.

Gallatin County Sheriff Search and Rescue Big Sky Section volunteers and Big Sky Fire Department personnel responded to assist.   GCSSAR volunteers reached the patient by snowmobile. The patient was medically assessed on scene before being transported down the trail in a specialized rescue sled. The patient was transferred to a waiting Big Sky Fire ambulance and transported to the next level of care.

Gallatin County Sheriff Dan Springer would like to remind winter recreationalist to be prepared for any situation. He commends the riders for having the ability to quickly communicate the emergency to get help on the way and encourages recreationalists to have a fully charged communication device in case of an emergency.

Photo courtesy of the Gallatin County Sheriff’s Office.

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Tuesday, Mar. 28th, 2023

MSU water experts receive NASA grant for calibration of new satellite that will aid in remapping flood-ravaged Yellowstone River

– Two Montana State University experts are preparing to contribute to remapping a portion of the Yellowstone River that was dramatically affected by last June’s devastating floods, while practicing techniques they will use to help calibrate a new NASA satellite designed to continuously monitor most of Earth’s surface water.

A team led by Eric Sproles, assistant professor in MSU’s Department of Earth Sciences, and Katey Plymesser, assistant professor in the Department of Civil Engineering, will float portions of the Yellowstone River between Livingston and Yankee Jim Canyon this spring and early summer to map the depth of the river and measure its velocity in 10 to 15 locations. They will use their data to calculate streamflows, thereby working with state and federal agencies to once again provide accurate, real-time streamflow and discharge information on the approximately 30-mile stretch of waterway.

“The Yellowstone’s channel has changed markedly since the floods,” Sproles said. “This information will verify streamflow estimates for the Yellowstone River and also collect baseline information on the shape of the river channel.”

It’s the sort of data people in the United States take for granted, he added, because the U.S. Geological Survey continually measures streamflows and posts current conditions online.

“That’s not the case in other parts of the world,” Sproles said.

But that’s about to change, thanks to NASA’s new SWOT, or Surface Water and Ocean Topography, satellite. SWOT was launched into orbit in December 2022, outfitted with instruments to collect measurements from nearly all of Earth’s lakes, rivers, reservoirs and oceans at least once every 21 days. According to NASA, the data will help scientists improve ocean circulation models, make better weather and climate predictions, and aid in the management of water around the world.

Before that can happen, the instruments aboard the satellite need to be precisely calibrated with the help of five U.S. universities, including MSU. Under a recently awarded $600,000 NASA grant, the MSU team – the only one assigned to South America – will collect high-fidelity field data on two Chilean rivers as SWOT passes overhead and takes its own measurements. The data sets will be compared, and the information from the ground team will be used to dial in the satellite’s accuracy.

NASA currently is conducting an initial series of checks on the satellite’s hardware and instruments to be sure everything is operating properly before the calibration effort begins. While that is happening, Sproles, Plymesser and partners from the Universidad Austral de Chile in Valdivia will practice their techniques on the Yellowstone.

“I think early relationship-building will be important,” Plymesser said. “We will be relying on our Chilean partners to collect data when we are not present.”

MSU’s work for NASA will begin this June and July, which is the height of winter in the southern hemisphere. The team will float the Rio Petrohue and Rio Valdivia, using a high-accuracy GPS tool to measure the elevation of the water’s surface. A Doppler radar on the raft will collect information about the shape of the rivers’ channels, and – as they will have practiced on the Yellowstone – team members will measure the velocity of the water at different points, enabling calculation of total streamflow.

“When the SWOT satellite passes over, we want detailed measurements of water surface elevation and flow rate,” Sproles said.

Plymesser, who has measured streamflow and river discharge rates on numerous projects in the past, will apply her hydraulics expertise in the field. Sproles, a geographic analyst who focuses on snow and water resources, will oversee the satellite aspects of the project and verify the results.  

Sproles believes the data from SWOT could help reduce contention in parts of the world where a lack of information or data-sharing leads to disputes over water rights or management. Helping communities around the world access adequate water is one of the goals of the SWOT program, according to NASA.

“SWOT data will be used to monitor drought conditions and improve flood forecasts, providing essential information to water management agencies, disaster preparedness agencies, universities, civil engineers and others who need to track water in their local areas,” a NASA project website states.

MSU will use the grant funding for equipment, travel and to support stipends and tuition for two graduate students.

The SWOT mission is a collaborative effort by NASA and the space agency of France, with contributions from the space agencies of Canada and the United Kingdom.

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Monday, Mar. 27th, 2023

MSU releases reports as part of major project on wildlife crossing structures

— As part of a multi-state and Canadian research effort involving the Western Transportation Institute at Montana State University, more than a dozen new reports summarizing the latest science and economics of structures designed to reduce animal-vehicle collisions are now available online.

The Western Transportation Institute was the research lead of the Wildlife Vehicle Collision Reduction and Habitat Connectivity Pooled Fund Study, a $1.2 million project involving more than a dozen partners in the U.S. and Canada. The project’s 14 reports identify cost-effective solutions that integrate highway safety and mobility with wildlife conservation and habitat connectivity.

The other partners on the study were transportation departments in Alaska, Arizona, California, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Nevada, New Mexico, Ontario, Oregon and Washington as well as the Ontario Ministry of Transportation and Parks Canada Agency. The project was supported by the U.S. Federal Highway Administration and ARC Solutions, an international organization promoting wildlife crossing structures. The Montana Department of Transportation, which has been a longtime partner with WTI on wildlife crossing research, provided research sites and other support for the work.

‘This is the most comprehensive analysis yet of what’s working and how we can make it better,” said David Kack, director of WTI. “This study will help guide state departments of transportation and other partners as they look for ways to improve our roadways while also benefitting the habitat around them.”

Kack said the study comes at an important time. The federal Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act of 2021 will allocate $350 million over five years to fund a pilot wildlife crossing program in the U.S. which will build on the success of several wildlife crossing structures around North America —typically bridges or tunnels that allow animals such as elk and bears to safely cross above or under a highway.

The pooled fund study was managed by the Nevada Department of Transportation, with WTI leading the research component comprising more than half the project scope. WTI’s Marcel Huijser served as principal investigator and led a cost-benefit analysis of various crossing structures and related measures such as signage and fencing along roadways, played a part in several of the reports.

WTI researchers Rob Ament, Matthew Bell, Damon Fick and Marcel Huijser also authored a report focused on the potential for advanced polymer materials to make crossing structures, “Improving Connectivity: Innovative Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Structures for Wildlife, Bicyclists, and/or Pedestrians.” According to the researchers, manufacturing crossing structures out of fiber-reinforced polymers, recycled plastics and bio-based materials could make the structures more customizable, more affordable and longer-lasting compared to traditional steel and concrete construction.

“We took a hard look at this material and what it’s capable of,” said Bell. “We think there’s a lot of opportunity, and that as it starts being used in wildlife crossing structures, the benefits will show themselves.”

For the report, Bell and the rest of the WTI team worked with the California Department of Transportation to analyze the potential for a polymer-based structure at a site where it could help elk and other animals cross U.S. Highway 97 in northern California.

The researchers designed a wildlife overpass with fiber-reinforced polymer girders and concrete reinforcement and used recycled plastic beams for sound and light barriers, wildlife fencing and structures that allow wildlife to exit the roadway.

“The construction method would be almost identical to using concrete and steel, but we estimate that the structure would last longer and be easier to maintain, which is a big consideration for departments of transportation when they have to budget for additional infrastructure,” Bell said.

As the research lead, WTI maintains the webpage to house the final reports and other resources including project presentations, webinar recordings and peer reviewed journal articles resulting from the research as they become available. For more information on the project and to access the reports and other products, visit

WTI is one of the nation’s largest transportation institutes focused on rural transportation issues. It has twice been designated as a National University Transportation Center by the federal Transportation Department. WTI has conducted transportation research at local, state and federal levels in 35 states and in 22 countries around the world.

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Big Sky Wind Drinkers Bozeman’s oldest running club turns 50

A huge part of Big Sky Wind Drinkers is volunteering. Volunteers carry thousands of pounds of water up the Bridgers each summer for runners participating in Old Gabe and the Bridger Ridge Run.

BOZEMAN—In the summer of 1973 in Red Lodge, Montana avid runners Andy Blank and Frank Newman were enjoying a meal at a diner chatting about what they could do to spread the teachings of their favorite sport—running. Struck by inspiration, they grabbed the cleanest napkin they could find and wrote a charter that would mark the beginning of Bozeman’s oldest running club: Big Sky Wind Drinkers.

Today, 50 years later, those teachings are still ringing true as the Wind Drinkers spread their love for running across the valley, hosting a smattering of year-long fun runs, as well as some of the region’s most coveted, and internationally-recognized races including the Ed Anacker Bridger Ridge Run, John Colter Run, Old Gabe Ultra as well as the Frank Newman Marathon. Named for the founder, the Frank Newman is the country’s cheapest marathon at just $5 and spans from Bridger Canyon Road, over Bozeman Pass into Livingston.

The Wind Drinkers are a registered nonprofit, fueled by our hearty volunteers and managed by a board of directors. Last year we gave back $13,000 to nonprofit partners including Gallatin Valley Land Trust, Thrive, Reach and Montana Outdoor Science School. We also give out a handful of scholarships to budding athlete students each year as a part of our scholarship program.

This summer to celebrate our 50 years, we’ll be working with a local artist to design a beautiful commemoration piece of our club and the trails on which we run and printing it on merchandise for sale as well as participation prizes for attending our fun runs and volunteering at events. Stay tuned on our Instagram and Facebook pages as well at and join us on a fun run or race this summer—we’d love to see you on the trails.

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Montana State University Extension shares weather-based spring fertilizer adjustments

— A Montana State University Extension soil fertility specialist suggests considering spring soil water content and temperatures when making fertilizer decisions for the upcoming growing season.

According to Clain Jones, MSU Extension soil fertility specialist and a professor in the Department of Land Resources and Environmental Sciences, many parts of Montana east of the Continental Divide received above-average precipitation from September 2022 through February 2023, including the Golden Triangle, which received at least twice the normal precipitation.

“Paired with below-average temperatures, fields will likely be cold and wet this spring, and planting could be delayed,” Jones said.

Jones noted that cold and wet conditions can impact soil nutrients.

“Cool temperatures decrease crop residue decomposition and the conversion of urea or ammonium fertilizers to plant-available nitrogen. High precipitation can leach nutrients, like nitrogen, sulfur and chloride, through the soil. Waterlogged soils also increase nitrogen loss as gas, decrease plant nutrient uptake due to poor root growth and increase disease pressure,” he said.

Weather and Yield Goals

Jones recommends that yield goals for the growing season should reflect a combination of long-term averages combined with recent weather conditions.

“If planting is significantly delayed due to cool and wet soils, yield goals may decrease, and fewer total nutrients are needed,” he said. “However, higher than normal soil moisture or growing season precipitation may increase yield goals as soil moisture is maintained through the growing season.”

Drier than average conditions, like those seen in most of western Montana and a few areas east of the divide, will also impact soil nutrient availability.

“Crops access nutrients through soil water,” Jones said. “If soil moisture is low, nutrients move more slowly through the soil, which can impact crop uptake.”

In addition, surface broadcast fertilizers depend on precipitation to move into the soil, according to Jones. For that reason, they should be applied ahead of a significant forecasted rain event.

Lastly, Jones noted that fertilizer damages seeds more when soils are dry, especially in coarse soils. He recommends working with crop advisers or Extension agents to determine seed-safe fertilizer rates.

If recent local weather has been drier than average, soil moisture may not have replenished from the previous growing season, and yield goals may decrease. Kent McVay, MSU Extension cropping systems specialist at the Southern Agricultural Research Center in Huntley, has written a MontGuide on determining yield potentials based on spring soil moisture and typical growing season precipitation. The publication is available at

Early-Season Fertilizer Applications

Providing small amounts of nitrogen, sulfur and chloride at seeding can give plants a boost when early season nutrient availability is low, according to Jones. Those nutrients move easily with soil water and so can be broadcast or applied with seed, though Jones also urged caution when applying fertilizers with the seed to avoid salt or ammonia injury to seedlings.

Phosphorus and potassium move slower when soil temperatures are low, so if soil tests suggest a field is deficient, these nutrients should be placed with, or close to, the seed, he added.

Spring soil testing can help determine if nitrogen has been lost from a field over winter. Jones recommends taking soil samples in the top 6 inches and in the 6-inch to 3-foot depth and having them analyzed for nitrate.

“Young roots will grow and reach nitrogen if it has only leached a few inches,” Jones said. “Later in the season, roots can access deeper nitrogen as well.” However, leached nitrogen may be beyond the reach of even mature roots, especially in coarse or shallow soils.

Rescue Nutrient Applications

Jones said producers or crop advisers should monitor crops in the early season for signs of nutrient deficiencies, as rescue nutrient applications can be made if deficiencies are widespread in a field.

“Nitrogen deficiency shows as uniform, yellow discoloration on lower, older leaves first. Sulfur deficiency also causes uniform yellowing but shows up on upper, younger leaves first,” Jones said.

More detailed descriptions and pictures of nutrient deficiency symptoms are available at

Generally, Jones said, a rescue treatment for nitrogen is 10 to 20 units (pounds per acre) of nitrogen applied as 28% or 32% urea ammonium nitrate solution (3 to 6 gallons per acre). Urea ammonium nitrate provides immediately available nitrogen (nitrate and ammonium) in addition to urea, which will convert to ammonium within several days to a couple weeks of application.

A rescue treatment for sulfur is to apply three to five units of sulfur as granular ammonium sulfate (21-0-0-24) or as a liquid sulfate formulation. Jones added that ammonium sulfate is a good option when it is difficult to determine which nutrient is lacking, as it can help with both nitrogen and sulfur deficiencies.

Jones cautioned that foliar applications could cause leaf burn.

“Streamer bars minimize burn and are preferred if more than 25 units of nitrogen are applied. The risk of burn increases when herbicides, fungicides, surfactants or sulfur are included in a mix with nitrogen. In these cases, don’t exceed 15 units of nitrogen if applied with a flat fan nozzle,” Jones said. “Burn should not be an issue if nitrogen is put through a pivot because the nitrogen concentration in the irrigation water will be very low.”

Broadcast applications are best followed by a half-inch of irrigation or rainfall within a couple of days to minimize nitrogen loss as ammonia gas and to force nitrogen into the root zone, Jones said.

“This is also true for foliar applications because only a small portion is absorbed through the leaf,” he said. “The rest needs to be washed off and moved into the soil to be taken up by roots.”

Individuals can contact a crop adviser or local Extension agent for help making fertilizer decisions. Questions about soil fertility may also be directed to Jones at or 406-994-6076 or addressed by visiting the MSU Extension soil fertility website at

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