Thursday, Jun. 6th, 2019

The Salvation Army, Family Promise and Love INC host “Tools for School” back to school drive

Nonprofits team up to help children go back to school
The Salvation Army, Family Promise and Love INC host “Tools for School” back to school drive
BOZEMAN, MT (June 6, 2019) – More than 300 children in Gallatin County will receive back to school support through the “Tools for School” campaign, a partnership between The Salvation Army, Family Promise and Love INC.
The campaign collects school supplies for children and runs from June 10 – July 26. Barrels will be at local churches, Staples and Office Depot. Additionally, 50 children will benefit from a Back to School Shopping Spree at Walmart to get outfitted in new school clothes.
School supplies needed include: backpacks, crayons, markers, colored pencils, #2 pencils, erasers, highlighters, scissors, glue, 2” binders, notebooks, rulers and other standard school supplies. To donate, please call The Salvation Army at 406-586-5813 or Love INC at 406-587-3008.
Families will receive donated items at a community event on Saturday, August 10.
What:   “Tools for School” Back to School Event
                Hot dogs, chips, drinks, popcorn, games
When:   Saturday, August 10
Where: The Salvation Army Bozeman
                32 S. Rouse Avenue, Bozeman, MT 59715
Families looking to register for supplies can call Love INC after June 7 at 406-587-3008. Children in grade K-12 are eligible to receive a backpack and school supplies.
“When kids go to school with everything they need, they are more confident and perform better,” says Lieutenant Jenn Larson, Administrator for The Salvation Army in Bozeman. “We’re excited to provide this opportunity for children of Gallatin County, so we can eliminate some of the barriers that keep kids from thriving.”

For more information about The Salvation Army, please visit

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Montana Contemporary Arts Coalition Art Show Exhibition Dates: Monday, July 1st -Friday, July 13th, 2019

Montana Contemporary Arts Coalition is pleased to announce the opening of their first group art show at Kountry Korner Cafe located at 81820 Gallatin Rd, Bozeman, MT 59718. The show will be on exhibit Monday, July 1st through Saturday, July 13th 2019. A reception will be held on Monday, July 1st, 2019 from 6:00-8:00 p.m. and will be free and open to the public. Hors d'oeuvres will be served, as will a cash bar.

On view will be the works of 8 artist from the Bozeman Area. The following disciplines  will be represented: painting and ceramics.

This will be the first group show of the Montana Contemporary Arts Coalition. The exhibited works will be salon style and are an example of the talented artist we have in the Bozeman area.

The following artists will be in the exhibition: Kenadie Pings, Johanna Elik, Carlos Palmer, Skylar Martinell, Rachel Kurle, Paul Rolfes, Duncan Bullock, Jeri Sparks, Jade Lowder, Hilary Honadel. The subject matter will be as diverse

The Montana Contemporary Arts Coalition Exhibition will be on view from Monday, July 1st - Saturday, July 13th, 2019 at Kountry Korner Cafe The located at 81820 Gallatin Rd. Bozeman, MT 59718 in 4 Corners. Business  Hours: Tuesday- Saturday 6am- 8pm, Sunday 6am- 3pm

For more information on this exhibition, The art show or on Montana Contemporary Arts Coalition in general, please visit  or follow us on Facebook at

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Tuesday, Jun. 4th, 2019

With its own honeybee colony, MSU Culinary Services furthers university’s ‘farm-to-campus’ efforts

Montana State University’s Culinary Services is buzzing with plans to produce honey from its own honeybee colony.

MSU already buys honey as well as meat, vegetables, fruits and other ingredients directly from more than 100 Montana producers, according to Kara Landolfi, MSU’s Farm to Campus coordinator. Those include purchases of beef, pork, lamb and goat from MSU programs.

In May, the bees were released at a new wooden hive – painted gold in honor of MSU – on the university’s horticulture farm just west of campus. The bees came from the Montana Honey Bee Company in Bozeman, and the hive came from the Polson Honey Bee Company.

A few thousand bees were delivered, said Jill Flores, MSU executive chef, and more are expected to hatch. A typical colony usually has 30,000 to 60,000 bees, she said.  

Flores, Landolfi and Culinary Services Director Richard Huffman will tend the hive, with assistance from David Baumbauer, manager of MSU’s Plant Growth Center. Flores said it’s uncertain how much honey the bees will produce at first. She anticipates the honey that is produced will be used in the special farm-to-campus themed dinners Culinary Services hosts on campus, such as the first dinner of the fall semester, which is a picnic on the Romney Oval. Landolfi said the university will continue to purchase honey from local producers, as well.

One reason Culinary Services opted to purchase the hive was for the educational opportunities it will enable, Flores said. Culinary Services has created educational posters about honeybees to share with students and engaged students via social media to name the queen bee. Out of more than 400 suggestions, Queen Freddie MercurBee was the winning name.

Montana State University Culinary Services staff tend to a beehive at the MSU Pollinator Garden Thursday, May 30, 2019 in Bozeman, Mont. MSU photo by Kelly Gorham.

“It will be a good education tool not only for students but for staff, as well,” she said. “When we harvest honey, we’ll have chefs be part of that. It’s good to get our chefs out to the farm to see where food is being produced.”

The university has additional links to honeybees. To support healthy populations of bees and other pollinators, MSU recently joined a nationwide initiative certifying the university's pollinator-friendly practices and programs, an effort that led to its designation as a Bee Campus USA by the international nonprofit Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation. MSU was the first Montana campus to qualify and enroll; the program also includes 58 other campuses nationwide.

MSU is also home to the Pollinator Health Center, which carries out research that aims to improve pollinator health, mitigate pollinator losses and engage with learners of all ages at educational events. The center brings together faculty from disciplines across MSU, as well as expertise from federal and state agencies. More information about the center is available at

Landolfi said the honeybees are an extension of edible landscaping that is present on campus and used by Culinary Services. Working in collaboration with MSU Facilities Services, Culinary Services harvests fruit, herbs and edible flowers that grow on the MSU campus. Those edibles include apples, crabapples, cedar, parsley, chives, nasturtiums and violets, she said.

“Facilities Services is proud to support our sister department’s farm-to-campus initiative,” said E.J. Hook, director of Facilities Services. “As a school with deep agriculture roots, it only makes sense to share the bounty we currently grow on campus. It also serves as an example that landscapes can serve multiple purposes – in this case aesthetics and edible food.”

In addition, Facilities Services and Culinary Services plan to partner later this summer to grow food – including cherry tomatoes – in planters outside Rendezvous Dining Pavilion, Flores said.

MSU Culinary Services provides more than 12,000 meals in its dining facilities each day during the academic year, Flores said. More information is available at

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MSU computer scientists help expand horizon of genetics research

A tweaked gene or two among the millions or even billions of proteins that make up an organism's DNA are often all that distinguish the drought-tolerant plant or the person pre-disposed to cancer.

That's why a better understanding of genetic variation within a species could, among other things, help improve selection of crops for local conditions and detection of disease, according to Joann Mudge, senior research scientist at the nonprofit National Center for Genome Resources.

A generation ago, recording an organism's DNA from beginning to end was so laborious and expensive that scientists celebrated when they completed the task for a single bacterium. But as genome sequencing becomes faster and cheaper, scientists increasingly have access to insights about which genes do what, Mudge said.

"We're sequencing multiple individuals of some species," including plants and other complex organisms, Mudge said. That allows scientists to begin to sort out which segments of DNA form a species' core genome and which correspond to traits shared by only some individuals, she said.

But the growing field of pangenomics, as it is called, presents a major analytical challenge. That's why NCGR recently partnered with Montana State University computer scientists to develop software that can compare multiple genomes and make sense of the results. The project is backed by a three-year, $662,000 grant from the National Science Foundation.

"We've been very happy with the way it's working," said Brendan Mumey, professor in the Gianforte School of Computing in MSU's Norm Asbjornson College of Engineering. He and Mudge are co-leading the project.

According to Mumey, previously available software struggled with analyzing pangenomes for relatively primitive organisms such as the common yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, whose genome contains only 12 million of the DNA units known as base pairs. (By comparison, the human genome contains 3 billion base pairs.) Among the known strains of the yeast, minor genetic variations account for physical adaptations such as the ability of brewer's yeast to survive alcohol during the making of beer and wine.

"It's a classic 'big data' problem," Mumey said, referring to the field of computing that deals with exceptionally large and complex data sets.

MSU assistant professor of computer science Indika Kahanda, a member of the research team, specializes in developing the "machine learning" models that help the new software adjust its gene-sorting analysis according to input from scientists. That approach has helped the team, which includes NCGR research scientist Thiru Ramaraj, identify genes of interest in a yeast pangenome that includes roughly 100 strains. Ramaraj earned his doctorate in computer science in 2010 at MSU, where Mumey was his adviser.

Mumey said the researchers' next step is to continue to refine the software so it can handle larger and more complex genomes, such as those of plants. The computational techniques being used "are still in their infancy," he said.

Eventually, pangenomics could help medical professionals diagnose a variety of diseases that have a genetic component, Mudge said. Most inherited breast cancer can be traced to mutations in just two genes, but other genetic diseases are thought to stem from more complex changes across larger areas of DNA.

The improved pangenomics tool is already helping scientists break out of a mold of comparing genomes to a single, arbitrary reference, Mudge said. Instead, researchers can represent a species' entire genome with all its nuance and variety.

"It's a hard problem to solve," Mudge said. "This has been a great collaboration."

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Monday, Jun. 3rd, 2019

What to do With Your Kids During the Summer

Summer is the most exciting months of the year for kids in school, but for parents, it’s one of the most stressful times of the year. Many parents are stuck trying to find things for their children to do while they are at work. While some children are allowed to stay home, others are put into camps and more schooling. The anxiety around finding a place to send your child for at least the day is what most parents experience as soon as the school year ends.  

It is very costly to find ways to keep your kids occupied and looked after. It can create a hardship on families, but it is something that has to be done. Unless your kids are old enough to watch themselves at home, you must spend money on services that will allow you the peace of mind that they are okay.

Summer Camps
One of the most popular thing parents do with their kids during the summer is to send them to summer camp. Sometimes kids aren’t as excited to go to these camps but it is necessary. Summer camps can be quite beneficial to your kids’ lives. They will meet all kinds of new people, explore, and try new things. This will help them either create a new hobby or become more proficient in the ones they already have. Use your children’s interest to decide what kind of camps to send them to.

Summer camps allow kids to play and enjoy their summer while being supervised 100% of the time. Creating friendships are good to increase a child’s skill in personal interactions and building relationships for the future. Your kids will remain active throughout the summer and you won’t have to worry about them sitting in front of a screen for hours. Most camps are educational, whether it is academically or practically. Your child will be learning and having a good time. Parents usually check in on their kids but it isn’t advised to do it daily.

Nannies and babysitters
Some parents opt for hiring assistance while they are at work. Paying a nanny or babysitter to care and look after their children is what some parent tend to do. This option can get costly, but it is well worth it. Knowing that your children ate safe at home with a skilled supervisor can be comforting. Parents don’t want to add more stress to their lives and hiring someone helps with relieving the pressure.

Nannies are paid to be there with your kids all day long. Some families have a nanny on hand 24/7 which definitely helps when the summer months come around. When hiring a nanny for the summer make sure to start your search ahead of time to ensure there is care available as soon as school lets out. Make sure to include certain activities so your children aren’t stuck at home watching television or constantly using electronics. It’s important to get them outside so make sure your nanny knows to take them out to parks, swimming pools, and even amusement parks to keep their summer filled with fun. There are even thousands of games they can play together at home.

If you don’t have the funds to support a nanny or babysitter for the entire summer, appoint a family member or friend to help out. This especially works for ones that also have children.

Summer school
Summer schools are great if you want your child to continue their learning. This option is primarily for the student who needs extended schooling or for families that want to give their children something productive to do for the summer. Summer school has quite promising results and even though it may not be the most fun thing for your child, they will thank you later.

Many parents, students, and teachers usually look at summer school in a negative way so it gets a bad rep. But it is quite beneficial for strengthening the mind of your kids. When summer begins, children usually forget about all of the things they learned during the school year keeping them in school through the summer is an ideal option.

Work from home
If you have no other options for ways to get rid of your kids during the summer, you could consider working from home. Though some careers deem this impossible, it is quite beneficial to parents’ pockets and relationship building. Spending more time with your kids will boost your connection and create a stronger bond. It may get stressful to find the peace and quiet you need to work, but knowing that they are in your care and you’re the only one responsible for them is comforting.

In conclusion
Putting their children first is what parents do and the summertime can be a pain. There are many benefits to each way you keep your children occupied and all of them are options many parents choose. Don’t be afraid to send your kids off to a camp to make wonderful memories and have great adventures. Allow your kids to learn year-round to sharpen their academic skills.

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An Evening of Art 2019 Ennis MT

The famous theologian, Thomas Merton wrote: “Art enables us to find ourselves and lose ourselves at the same time.” Some folks say art is a luxury. Others believe it is a necessity in our lives. No matter where one falls on the spectrum, maybe we all can agree that art is fun to create, fun to look at and fun to own.

Come to Ennis MT this summer to find yourself and lose yourself and have fun while you do! Ennis is an artist enclave with four of the friendliest and finest art galleries in Montana: Gallery 287, The Cattleman Gallery of Western Art, Artists on Main, and Right Angles. Every category of art that you can name can be found in our galleries. All four galleries have artwork from local and surrounding Montana artists. Some internationally acclaimed and collected artists that live in our community and who are represented in these galleries are: Todd

Connor, David Lemon, Ed Totten and Cathy Toot.

We have a number of events happening this summer in Ennis that will give you an opportunity to meet and watch artists at their craft. On June 8 and 9, 10 am to 4 pm is the Madison Valley Open Studio Tours. There will be a potter, jeweler, painters, pyrographer, woodworker, musician and more! Some will have snacks and door prizes.You can get your flyer and maps at Gallery 287 LLC (50 Mt Hwy 287, Ennis, MT 59729 (406) 490-1453) or the Ennis Chamber of Commerce (201 E Main St, Ennis, MT 59729 (406) 682-4388). This special two day event is Free.

An Evening of Art 2019 will be held on four Fridays throughout the summer at Gallery 287 and The Cattleman Gallery of Western Art. Enjoy refreshments and meet the featured artists on June 21, July 19, August 16, and Sept 20. All starting at 5:00 pm to 8:00 pm. Free and open to all ages. Bring your guests and friends!

And mark your calendars! Saturday, August 10th is the Ennis Arts Association’s 24th annual Madison Valley Arts Festival. The event features 57 juried artist booths, live music, food, face painting and an art raffle. This fun, family friendly and free event will take place from 10 am to 5 pm in beautiful Peter T.’s Park on Main Street in Ennis.

The Ennis Arts Association (EAA) was established in 1972 with the mission to promote the arts in Madison Valley. The Ennis Arts Association is a non-
profit 501(c)3 organization. Membership fees as well as the annual arts festival fundraiser are used to support art in Madison Valley through programs, scholarships, and events held by the EAA. The proceeds from the EAA arts festival allows the EAA to give back to our community, such as the Madison Valley Public Library, Shakespeare in the Schools, Madison County Fair Art Awards, Ennis School Science Fair Awards, and Madison Farm to Fork: Good Thyme Summer Camp. The Ennis Arts Association awards art-related Tuition Scholarships annually.

Give yourself a break from your routine. Take a day trip and visit our town, Ennis. We have great restaurants and shops and friendly people! Check out our fabulous galleries and spend the day. You won’t regret it.

Elizabeth McCambridge
EAA Face Book Page Manager

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Thursday, May. 30th, 2019

4 Things to Consider Before Starting a Construction Business

                                                                                                                                         photo from pixabay

Almost everywhere you go, there is some kind of construction. So many roads are being expanded or redone, a new house is being built down the street and that new shopping center is popping up.

You may leave for a few months and come back to a part of town that looks completely different than it did before.

Construction is also a job that seems to have endured all the tests of time and a job sector that is expecting growth over the next decade. Unfortunately, nothing ever stays in absolute perfect condition and people will always want buildings or homes to look newer.

If you’re thinking about getting into the construction business, consider the following list before making the big jump.

Design your Business Plan
You’ll want to think of what exactly your business will be doing. Construction can be a broad term. Are you going to build houses? Remodeling? Additions? All of the above?

Think about going deep instead of going wide. It’d be great if you could service anything and everything out there, but that’s not possible.

Lay out a clear plan for yourself so you’re not left wondering what the next step is going to be. It’s just like when you had to write a paper for your English class in high school; having that outline was a great way to keep you focused and lasered in on your next objectives.

Ask for Help
Starting a construction business is similar to starting any other small business. So when you start your business, you might have to wear a lot of hats at once. When you come to an area you don’t feel particularly well-versed in, it’s time to ask for help.

You may need an HR rep to help you lay out your policies and hire people. You will need an accountant to help you on the money side of things. You may need an assistant to help you take calls, plan everything or find an office space.

There is no shame in asking for an expert’s opinion. They studied long and hard to put themselves in that position and you would be wise to ask for their assistance.

The Red Tape
You can’t simply walk outside and say, “Right now, I am starting a construction business” and have it be so. You’ll need to obtain a license and insurance.

For starters, every state has different licenses for different trades. If you plan on doing anything from electrical work, plumbing, HVAC, gas fitting or construction, you are going to need a license. You’ll need to head down to your local state business office to get any information on what you’ll need or what you’ll have to do.

You may also need surety bonds, depending on exactly what kind of work you’re in. Surety bonds ensure that a third party will pay your client if you are unable to fulfill your duties outlined in the contract.

Lastly, you’ll need insurance, and a lot of it. A construction area can be a dangerous place and you’ll want to protect yourself from anything and everything. You may need to get insurance on your equipment, business, workers, vehicles and anything else.

The Money Side
You’re going to be putting a lot of money into the business to start and it’s a good idea to look where you can save money. You don’t want to buy the cheapest equipment but you can look to rent when the time comes up.

Examine your business from top-down and see what kind of items you’ll need right off the bat. You’ll want to get an exact number so you don’t buy too much or too little.

There are lots of places that offer small business loans to get you off the ground and you’ll want to examine each one and see which is best for you. Do you research and talk to experts before making any big decisions.

When it comes to hiring, you'll generally be pulling from four areas: subcontractors, hired employees, labor brokers or independent contractors. Hire people with solid reputations and those you can trust. This is where having a good accountant and tax expert can help you weave your way through hiring each different kind of employee.

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Examsnap Highlights: Top 6 Reasons for CompTIA Security+ Popularity among Security Professionals

Cybersecurity challenges are consistently appearing in organizations. Therefore, there is a high demand for the professionals who have the capability to mitigate these threats and attacks. There are numerous job titles coming up on a regular basis in the field of IT. They are a penetration tester, a cybersecurity analyst, and an ethical hacker. These jobs were not popular some time ago, but today, they have taken the top place. Besides, even more professions will be created as time goes on.

What is the implication of this?There will be continuous demand for security experts in the world of IT. This potential has given rise to the development of certification contents by institutions and organizations. These credentials are designed to validate the skills, knowledge, and experience of professionals in cybersecurity. One of these certifications is CompTIA Security+. To earn this credential or any other cybersecurity certificates, the candidates are expected to go through an exam process to prove their knowledge and skills on specific contents.

Your ability to pass the test shows that you have what it takes to perform optimally in a job role meant for a Security+ certified professional. To pass the exam, there are some recommended study tools that you need to use. Examsnap offers some unique and highly relevant materials that will ensure your success in the exam. You should check the website to find the practice tests and guides for your specific exam.

Reasons for the Popularity of CompTIA Security+ Certification
As mentioned earlier, there are many certification providers that offer security credentials for the professionals in the field of IT. However, Security+ has remained the most pursued one among all the others. Of course, there must be some reasons for that. Examsnap has done some research and gathered some of the top reasons why the security professionals choose CompTIA Security+ over many other certificates. Let’s explainit in detail.

CompTIA Security+ is the industry standard
The CompTIA Security+ certification is considered the standard for all cybersecurity credentials across the world. It is approved by ANSI and it is intended to validate the ability of a candidate to use the knowledge and skills required to be ISO 17024 standard compliant. In other words, having this credential in your resume indicates that you have the skills, knowledge and the integrity required to perform some security tasks in any situation. The exam involves performance-based questions, which stands it out among the rest.

CompTIA Security+ doesn’t require any prerequisites
The credential is entry-level, which means you don’t need to have many years of experience in the industry before you pursue it. The implication of this is that wherever you are in your career, you can pursue the Security+ certification. This is why many professionals in other industries who want to work in cybersecurity consider it as the first certificate to choose.

There are no compulsory requirements for the certification test. The only recommendation is that individuals taking the exam should have at least two-year working experience in the fields of networking and security to enhance their success. If you managed to earn the CompTIA Network+ certificate, this will also be a great advantage. However, if you don’t have the experience, you can still attain the desired score. All you need is to take a training course and practice questions to prepare for the exam. Examsnap can help you in this regard.

CompTIA Security+ is a vendor-neutral certification
This is one of the major reasons why it is popular among security experts. Irrespective of the products you want to specialize in, the CompTIA Security+ certificate will be suitable. The credential is not restricted to any specific technology or any specific vendor’s security. It covers the general fundamentals and components of the cybersecurity field. The knowledge and skills learnt during the certification process make you marketable in any area of cybersecurity.

CompTIA Security+ offers huge career opportunities
The specialists with expertise and credentials in the field of cybersecurity are very much in demand by private and public organizations. The CompTIA Security+ certificate offers you an advantage. It allows you to take up network and security administration job roles in any organization. You can choose from a wide range of positions. Some professional areas you can fit in with your Security+ certification include Access Control and Identity Management, Compliance and Operational Security, Threats and Vulnerabilities, Cryptography, and Data Security.

CompTIA Security+ offers great income potentials
The professionals with this certification have better earning power than their non-certified counterpart. Working as a network engineer, and the individual with the CompTIA Security+ credential can earn an average annual salary of $42,140 and $95,840. A certified professional who also possesses some years of experience can get $66,895 annually. It is essential to point out that the salary of an individual is dependent on many factors other than the credential. However, the certification plays a significant role in higher income potential.

CompTIA Security+ provides an opportunity to work in Government Agencies
If you want to explore a career in networking or cybersecurity in government agencies, the Security+ credential will pave way for you. This is because it meets the standard of U.S DoD 8570,which is a prerequisite for both Management Level One and Technical Level Two positions.

The CompTIA Security+ certification has many advantages. If you are just a newbie in the field of IT and desire to succeed in cybersecurity, this credential is a good way to launch your career. When it comes to your SY0-501 exam preparation, you can find a lot of resources on Examsnap. You can explore training courses, practice tests, exam dumps, and a host of other tools to help you make the best of your learning.When you finally earned your credential, you can move higher and set new goals.

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Monday, May. 20th, 2019

New boat ramp installed at Highway 89 Bridge Fishing Access Site

A new boat ramp has been installed at the Highway 89 Bridge Fishing Access Site on the Yellowstone River east of Livingston. The new ramp extends farther into the river at a more gradual slope than the previous ramp.

This will make the site more user friendly for boaters, especially during periods of low flows. The entire project was completed using capital improvement funds from Region 3 of Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks. FWP continues to remind boaters who plan on taking out at the Highway 89 Bridge FAS to use caution in avoiding the bridge pylons just upstream from the boat ramp.

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MSU researcher co-authors book on new approach to traffic safety

A new book that explores an emerging approach to reducing vehicle crashes is co-edited by Montana State University's Nicholas Ward, director of the university’s Center for Health and Safety Culture.

"Traffic Safety Culture: Definition, Foundation and Application" is the first book to deal comprehensively with the values, assumptions and beliefs that influence how drivers and others behave while on the road, according to Ward.  The cultures associated with the groups people belong to — family, friends, school, workplaces and others — are defined by those values, assumptions and beliefs, he said.

"It's a new way of looking at an old problem," said Ward, who has been active in the field for almost three decades. "Traffic safety has traditionally looked at engineering, enforcement and education as a way to make drivers behave safely. Because most crashes are the result of driver behavior, it is imperative to understand how culture influences driver behavior.”

The problem of traffic safety is a big one, and it is expected to grow, according to the book's editors. In their preface, they note that the World Health Organization estimates that more than 1.25 million people are killed annually and 50 million are injured on the world's roads, and that fatalities are expected to grow to 1.9 million by 2030 without increased prevention.

Co-edited by Barry Watson, global road safety expert at the Centre for Accident Research and Road Safety in Queensland, Australia, and Katie Fleming-Vogl, researcher at the Minnesota Department of Transportation, the book contains chapters written by 22 contributing authors from Australia , Austria and the United States, including Ward and five other MSU researchers. The chapters cover theoretical approaches and practical recommendations as well as case studies.

"We tried to organize the book so that it is accessible both to academic researchers and practitioners," Ward said.
Better road infrastructure and enforced regulations can contribute to better road safety, according to Ward, but there's a growing awareness that the influence of people’s cultures on road user behavior is also a significant factor. By better understanding how culture influences road users’ behavior — such as whether to wear a seatbelt or drive after drinking alcohol — public agencies and others can be more effective at fostering safe behaviors, he added.

Besides Ward, the contributing MSU authors are Eric Austin, associate professor in the Department of Political Science; William Schell, associate professor in the Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering; and Kari Finley, senior research scientist, Kelly Green, research associate and Jay Otto, principal scientist, all three from the Center for Health and Safety Culture. The Center for Health and Safety Culture is housed in MSU's Western Transportation Institute in the Norm Asbjornson College of Engineering.

"Traffic Safety Culture: Definition, Foundation and Application" is available in hardback and ebook from Emerald Publishing Limited.

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